guide.php Английская грамматика | By


Предлог by употребляется, чтобы сказать, как, с помощью каких среств мы что-то делаем.

  • Мы используем by во многих выражениях. Например, мы говорим:
  • send something by post, call somebody by phone, do something by hand, pay by credit card, contact somebody by email
  • Can I pay by credit card?
  • You can contact me by email.
  • Но мы говорим pay cash или pay in cash.
  • Также можно сказать by mistake, by accident, by chance:
  • We hadn't arranged to meet. We met by chance.
  • Но мы говорим do something on purpose.
  • I didn't do it on purpose. It was an accident
  • Заметьте, что мы употребляем by chance, by cheque и т.д. без артикля the или a.
  • Таким же образом, мы употребляем by, чтобы сказать, как мы передвигаемся:
  • by car, by train, by plane, by boat, by ship, by bus, by bike, by road, by rail, by air, by sea, by underground.
  • Boris usually goes to work by bus.
  • How do you prefer to travel, by plane or by train?
  • Но есть исклчение on foot:
  • Are you going there on foot?
  • Нельзя использовать by если вы говорите my car, the train, a taxi и т.д. Мы употребляем by только с существительными без артикля и без притяжательного местоимения. Например:
  • by car но in my car
  • by train но on the train
  • Мы употребляем in для автомобилей и такси:
  • They didn't come in their car. They came in a taxi.
  • Мы используем on для велосипедов, автобусов, поездов и т.д.:
  • We travelled on the 6.45 train.

  • Мы употребляем by в страдательном залоге: something is done by somebody или by something:
  • Have you ever been bitten by a dog?
  • The programme was watched by millions of people.
  • Сравните by и with:
  • The safe must have been opened by somebody with a special key.
  • Мы говорим a play by Shakespeare, a painting by Rembrandt, a novel by Tolstoy и т.д.:
  • Have you read anything by Ernest Hemingway?

  • By может еще означать рядом:
  • Come and sit by me.
  • "Where's the light switch?" "By the door."

  • Обратите внимание на следующее использование by:
  • Lola's salary has just gone up from £2,000 a month to £2,200. So it has increased by £200 or by ten per cent.
  • Carl and Peter had a race over 200 metres. Carl won by about three metres.