guide.php Английская грамматика | Слова отрицания

Слова отрицания

No и None

Мы употребляем no перед существительным.
We had to go by bus because there was no train.
Sue will have no difficulty finding a job.
There were no shops open.
Вы можете использовать no + существительным в начале предложения:
No reason was given for the change of plan.
Мы используем none без существительного:
"How much money do you have?" "None."
All the tickets have been sold. There are none left.
Или мы используем none of... :
This money is all yours. None of it is mine.
После none of можно использовать как глагол в единственном числе, так и во множественном. Чаще используют множественное число:
None of the shops were open.

Nothing, nobody(no-one), nowhere

Вы можете употребить эти слова в начале предложения, или отдельно, отвечая на вопрос:
Nobody came to visit me while I was in hospital.
"What happened?" "Nothing."
"Where are you going?" "Nowhere. I'm staying here."
Вы также можете использовать эти слова после глагола, в частности после be и have:
The house is empty. There's nobody living there.
We had nothing to eat.
Nothing, nobody и т.д. = not + anything, anybody и т.д. :
I didn't say anything.
Jane didn't tell anybody about her plans.
They haven't got anywhere to live.
С nothing, nobody и т.д. мы не употребляем отрицательные формы (isn't, didn't) и т.д.:
I said nothing.
Nobody tells me anything.

Мы также используем any, anything, anybody (без not) в смысле "все равно какой, что, кто".
You can take any bus. They all go to the centre.
I'm so hungry. I could eat anything.
The exam was very easy. Anybody could have passed.

После nobody, no-one вы можете использовать they, them, their:
Nobody phoned, did they?
No-one did what I asked them to do.
Nobody in the class did their homework.