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Относительные предложения с дополнительной информацией



Есть более сложное использование относительных предложений, когда мы уже знаем, о ком или о чем идет речь, и даем дополнительную информацию.

Относительные предложения, которые дают нам дополнительную информацию, отделяются запятыми:
He told me about his new job, which he's enjoing very much.
My brother Robert, who lives in Barcelona, invited me to spend holidays over there.
We are staying at the camping near the river, which a friend of ours recommended.

В обоих типах относительных предложений мы употребляем who для людей и which для вещей. Но вы можете использовать that в предложениях с дополнительной информацией. И вы не можете обойтись без who или which:
My sister, who speaks English and French, works as a tourist guide.
A friend of mine told me about his job, which is very interesting for me.
This morning I met Chris, who I hadn't seen for ages.
Мы можем употребить whom для людей если это - дополнение к предложению:
This morning I met Chris, whom I hadn't seen for ages.
В обоих типах относительных предложений мы можем использовать whose и where:
Liz, whose car had broken down, was in a very bad mood.
Jill has just been to Sweden, where her daughter lives.

Можно употреблять предлоги перед whom (для людей) и перед which (для предметов). Так, можно сказать: to whom, with whom, about which, without which и т.д.:
Mr Lee, to whom I spoke at the meeting, is very interested in our proposal.
Fortunately Tom had a phone, without which we couldn't call Helen to find home.
В неформальном английском мы часто оставляем предлог после глагола в относительном предложении. Когда мы так делаем, то обычно используем who (не whom) для людей:
This is my friend from Canada, who I was telling you about.
When we visited the museum I saw many interesting things, which I'd never seen to before.

Мы используем all of, most of и т.д. + whom/which:
Mary has three brothers, all of whom are married.
They asked me a lot of questions, most of which I couldn't answer.
Аналогично, можно сказать:
none of / neither of / any of / either of
some of / many of / much of / (a) few of
both of / half of / each of / one of / two of и т.д.
+ whom (people)
which (things)
Martin tried on three jackets, none of which fitted him.
Two men, neither of whom I had seen before, came into the office.
They've got three cars, two of which they rarely use.
Sue has a lot of friends, many of whom she was at school with.
Также можно сказать the cause of which, the name of which и т.д.:
The building was destroyed in a fire, the cause of which was never established.
We stayed at a beautiful hotel, the name of which I can't remember now.

Мы употребляем which (а не what) когда ссылаемся на все предложение, как к подлежащему:
Sarah couldn't meet us, which was a pity.
The weather was good, which we hadn't expected,



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