Past Perfect Continuous
Структура Past Perfect Continuous
|Утверждение||подлежащее||had (= 'd)||been||present participle|
|Отрицание||подлежащее||had not / hadn't||been||present participle|
Использование Past Perfect Continuous
Мы используем Past Perfect Continuous чтобы сказать, что что-то началось в какой-то момент времени в прошлом и продолжалось до другого момента в прошлом. Вы можете указать, как долго оно длилось (for five minutes, for two weeks). Но, в противоположность Present Perfect Continuous, оно не длится до настоящего времени, а заканчивается в какой-то момент времени в прошлом.
James wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at work.
When I went to Berlin, I stayed with a friend of mine. She had been living there for a long time.
George went to the doctor last Friday. He hadn't been feeling well for some time.
They had been talking for over two hours before before they made a decision.
"How long had you been studying Spanish before you moved to Tenerife?" "I had not been studying Spanish very long."
Используя Past Perfect Continuous с другим действием в прошлом мы можем показать причину и следствие.
Jason was tired because he had been jogging.
Sam gained weight because he had been overeating.
Alex failed the final test because he had not been attending class.
Сравните Past Continuous и Past Perfect Continuous:
It wasn't raining when we went out. The sun was shining. But it had been raining, so the ground was wet.
Cathy was sitting in an armchair resting. She was tired because she had been working hard.
Сравните Present Perfect Continuous и Past Perfect Continuous:
|Present Perfect Continuous||Past Perfect Continuous|
|I hope the bus comes soon. I've been waiting for 20 minutes. (до настоящего момента)||At last the bus came. I'd been waiting for 20 minutes. (до того, как пришел автобус)|
|James is out of breath. He has been running.||James was out of breath. He had been running.|
Наречие следует ставить непосредственно перед been:
You had only been waiting there for a five minutes when he arrived.
Had you only been waiting there for a five minutes when he arrived?