For, During, While и Until
Мы используем for с периодом времени чтобы сказать, как долго что-то длится:
- for two hours for a week for ages
- We played cards for two hours last night.
- Diane is going away for a week in September.
- Where have you been? I've been waiting for ages.
- Are you going away for the weekend?
Мы используем during с существительным, означающим временной интервал, чтобы сказать, что что-то произошло в это время, но не говорим, как долго длилось это событие:
- during the film during our holiday during the night
- I fell asleep during the film.
- We met some really nice people during our holiday.
- The ground is wet. It must have rained during the night.
- Со словами, выражающими период времени, такими как, the morning, the afternoon, the summer, мы обычно употребляем in или during:
- It must have rained in the night. или ... during the night.
- I'll phone you sometime during the afternoon. или ... in the afternoon.
- Вы не можете использовать during чтобы сказать, как долго что-то длилось:
- It rained for three days without stopping. не ...during three days.
- Сравните during и for:
- I fell asleep during the film. и
- I was asleep for half an hour.
Мы используем while когда говорим о двух достаточно продолжительных событиях или действиях, происходящих в одно и то же время.
- We saw Bill while we were sitting on the balcony.
- While you were out, Tony asked you over the phone.
- Chris read a book while I watched television.
|during + существительное||while + подлежащее + глагол|
|I fell asleep during the movie.||I fell asleep while I was watching the movie on TV.|
|We had a very interesting discussion during the conference.||We had a very interesting discussion while we were on the conference.|
|Pablo suddenly began to feel ill during the exam.||Pablo suddenly began to feel ill while he was doing the exam.|
- Когда мы говорим о будущем, то используем настоящее. (Ни в коем случае will после while):
- I'll be in London next week. I hope to see Tom while I'm there.
- What are you going to do while you are waiting?
- Мы говорим by со временем, что означает "не позднее чем":
- I sent the letter to them today, so they should receive it by Monday.
- We'd better hurry. We have to be home by 5 o'clock.
- Where's Sarah? She should be here by now.
Мы используем until или till чтобы сказать, до какого момента продолжается ситуация:
- "Shall we go now?" "No, Let's wait until the rain is so strong.
- I was so lazy this morning. I stayed in bed until ten.
- Сравните until и by:
|Something continues until a time in the future||Something happens by a time in the future|
|David will be away until Monday.||David will be back by Monday.|
|I'll be studying until 11.30.||I'll have finished my studying by 11.30.|
- Вы можете сказать by the time something happens (к тому времни, как что-то ...). Например:
- It's too late to go to the bank now. By the time we get there, it will be closed.
- Our holiday ends tomorrow. So by the time you receive this postcard I'll be back home.
- Hurry up! By the time we get to the club, the show will already have started.
- Для прошедшего времени вы можете сказать by the time something happened:
- Yesterday Alex stayed late at work. By the time he returned home, everyone was asleep.
- I had a lot of work to do yesterday evening. I was very tired by the time I completely finished.
- We were late for a party in the club. By the time we got into, the show had already started.
- Можно также сказать by then или by that time:
- Boris finally arrived at the party at midnight, but by then, most of the guests had left.