guide.php Английская грамматика | For, During, While и Until

For, During, While и Until

Мы используем for с периодом времени чтобы сказать, как долго что-то длится:

  • for two hours     for a week     for ages
  • We played cards for two hours last night.
  • Diane is going away for a week in September.
  • Where have you been? I've been waiting for ages.
  • Are you going away for the weekend?

Мы используем during с существительным, означающим временной интервал, чтобы сказать, что что-то произошло в это время, но не говорим, как долго длилось это событие:

  • during the film     during our holiday     during the night
  • I fell asleep during the film.
  • We met some really nice people during our holiday.
  • The ground is wet. It must have rained during the night.
  • Со словами, выражающими период времени, такими как, the morning, the afternoon, the summer, мы обычно употребляем in или during:
  • It must have rained in the night. или ... during the night.
  • I'll phone you sometime during the afternoon. или ... in the afternoon.
  • Вы не можете использовать during чтобы сказать, как долго что-то длилось:
  • It rained for three days without stopping. не ...during three days.
  • Сравните during и for:
  • I fell asleep during the film.
  • и
  • I was asleep for half an hour.

Мы используем while когда говорим о двух достаточно продолжительных событиях или действиях, происходящих в одно и то же время.

  • We saw Bill while we were sitting on the balcony.
  • While you were out, Tony asked you over the phone.
  • Chris read a book while I watched television.
  • Сравните:
during + существительное while + подлежащее + глагол
I fell asleep during the movie. I fell asleep while I was watching the movie on TV.
We had a very interesting discussion during the conference. We had a very interesting discussion while we were on the conference.
Pablo suddenly began to feel ill during the exam. Pablo suddenly began to feel ill while he was doing the exam.
  • Когда мы говорим о будущем, то используем настоящее. (Ни в коем случае will после while):
  • I'll be in London next week. I hope to see Tom while I'm there.
  • What are you going to do while you are waiting?

  • Мы говорим by со временем, что означает "не позднее чем":
  • I sent the letter to them today, so they should receive it by Monday.
  • We'd better hurry. We have to be home by 5 o'clock.
  • Where's Sarah? She should be here by now.

Мы используем until или till чтобы сказать, до какого момента продолжается ситуация:

  • "Shall we go now?" "No, Let's wait until the rain is so strong.
  • I was so lazy this morning. I stayed in bed until ten.
  • Сравните until и by:
Something continues until a time in the future Something happens by a time in the future
David will be away until Monday. David will be back by Monday.
I'll be studying until 11.30. I'll have finished my studying by 11.30.

  • Вы можете сказать by the time something happens (к тому времни, как что-то ...). Например:
  • It's too late to go to the bank now. By the time we get there, it will be closed.
  • Our holiday ends tomorrow. So by the time you receive this postcard I'll be back home.
  • Hurry up! By the time we get to the club, the show will already have started.
  • Для прошедшего времени вы можете сказать by the time something happened:
  • Yesterday Alex stayed late at work. By the time he returned home, everyone was asleep.
  • I had a lot of work to do yesterday evening. I was very tired by the time I completely finished.
  • We were late for a party in the club. By the time we got into, the show had already started.
  • Можно также сказать by then или by that time:
  • Boris finally arrived at the party at midnight, but by then, most of the guests had left.