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Слова, выражающие количество



Мы используем эти слова чтобы выразить, насколько много или мало чего-нибудь есть.


Мы употребляем much и little с неисчисляемыми существительными:
much time, much luck, little energy, little money

Мы употребляем many и few с множественным числом существительных:
many people, many birds, few chairs, few rights

Мы употребляем a lot of, lots of и plenty of как с неисчисляемыми существительными, так и с множественным числом существительных:
a lot of luck, lots of time, plenty of money
a lot of friends, lots of people, plenty of ideas

Мы редко употребляем much в утвердительных предложениях, особенно в разговорном английском. Вместо этого мы используем "a lot".
We didn't spend much money.
но We spent a lot of money.
Do you see David much?
но I see David a lot.

Вы можете использовать many ии a lot of в любых типах предложений:
Many people drive too fast. или A lot of people drive too fast.
Do you know many people? или Do you know a lot of people?
There aren't many tourists here. или There aren't a lot of tourists here.
Заметьте, что мы говорим many years, many weeks, many days, а не a lot of ...:
We've lived here for many years.

Little и few (без a) имеют отрицательное значение со смыслом "не много":
Gary is very busy with his job. He has little time for other things.
Vicky doesn't like living in London. She has few friends there.
Вы можете сказать сильнее: very little и very few:
Gary has very little time for other things.
Vicky has very few friends in London.

A little и a few имеют более положительный смысл.
A little означает некоторое, небольшое количество (неисчисляемое):
Let's go and have a coffee. We have a little time before the train leaves.
"Do you speak English?" "A little."
A few означает некоторое, небольшое число:
I enjoy living in my house in the country. There are a few neighbors and they are very friendly.
"When was the last time you saw Clare?" "A few days ago."
Сравните:
He spoke little English, so it was difficult to communicate with him.
но He spoke a little English, so we were able to communicate with him.
She's lucky. She has few problems.
но Things are not going so well for her. She has a few problems.
Вы можете сказать only a little и only a few:
Hurry! We only have a little time.
The village was very small. There were only a few houses.

Мы используем слова all, some, any, most, much/many, little/few, no с существительными во множественным числом и с неисчисляемыми существительными:
All cars have wheels.
Some cars can go faster than others.
Many people drive too fast.
I'm at home most days.
Со словами all, some, any, most, much/many, little/few, half, none можно использовать структуру:
{some of, most of, half of, none of} + {the, this, those, my} + существительное
Some of the people I work with are not very friendly.
Have you read any of these books?
I was sick yesterday. I spent most of the day in bed.

После all или half  "of" не обязательно. Можно сказать:
All my friends или All of my friends
Half this money или Half of this money
Сравните:
All flowers are beautiful. все цветы вообще
but All of the flowers in this garden are beautiful. специфическая группа
Most problems have a solution. большинство проблем вообще
but We were able to solve most of the problems we had. специфическая группа

Можно использовать структуру:
{all of, some of, most of, none of} + {it, us, you, them}
All of us were late.
I haven't finished the book yet. I've only read half of it.
Do any of you want to come to a party tonight?
"How many of these people do you know?" "A few of them."
"Do you like this music?" "Some of it."

Вы также можете использовать слова some, most и т.д. без существительного:
Some cars have four doors and some have two.
A few of the shops were open, but most were closed



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