guide.php Английская грамматика | Like и As

Like и As

Like означает "наподобие, как".

  • Вы не можете использовать as в этом смысле. Например:
  • What a beautiful house! It's like a palace.
  • "What does Sandra do?" "She's a teacher, like me."
  • Be careful! The floor has been polished. It's like walking on ice.
  • It's raining again. I hate weather like this.
  • В этих предложениях, like - предлог. За ним может следовать существительное, местоимение, герундий или фраза с герундием:
  • What's that noise? It sounds like a baby crying.
  • Иногда like имеет значение "например":
  • Some sports, like motor-racing, can be dangerous.
  • В том же смысле вы можете использовать such as:
  • Some sports, such as motor-racing, can be dangerous.

Мы используем as в значении "таким же образом", "в тех же самых условиях".

  • Мы употребляем as перед подлежащим с глаголом:
  • I didn't move anything. I left everything as it was.
  • You should do it exactly as I showed you.
  • В разговорном английском можно еще употребить like:
  • I left everything like it was.

  • Иногда as имеет другой смысл. Например, после do:
  • You can do as you like.
  • They did as they promised.
  • Мы также говорим as you know / as I said / as she expected / as I thought и т.д. :
  • As you know, it's Emma's birthday next week.
  • Andy failed his driving test, as he expected.
  • Like звучит странно в этих выражениях, если только мы не употребляем "say":
  • Like I said yesterday, I'm sure we can solve the problem.

  • As может быть и предлогом, но со значением в качестве, на позиции и т.д.:
  • A few years ago I worked as a taxi driver.
  • We haven't got a car so we use the garage as a workshop.
  • Many words can be used as a verb or as a noun. For example: work, rain.
  • London is fine as a place to visit, but I wouldn't like to live there.
  • The news of the tragedy came as a great shock.

  • Вы можете сказать as if или as though чтобы выразить, как кто-то или что-то выглядит, звучит, ощущается:
  • The roof on that house looks as if it's going to fly.
  • Helen sounded as if she had a cold, didn't she?
  • I've just come back from holiday, but I feel very tired. I feel as if I've just had a hard work.
  • You can stay here as long as you keep quiet.
  • Во всех этих примерах можно использовать as though с тем же успехом. Еще пример:
  • I feel as though I've just had a hard work.
  • В разгоаворном английском вы можете употребить like:
  • That house looks like it's going to fall down.
  • Сравните:
look + прилагательное
You look tired.
look as if + подлежащее + глагол
You look as if you haven't slept.

  • Вы можете сказать: It looks as if ... or It sounds as if ... :
  • Sandra is very late, isn't she? It looks as if she isn't coming.
  • We decided to go by car because it looked as if it was going to rain.
  • Do you hear that music next door? It sounds as if they are celebrating a birthday.
  • Вы можете также употребить as though или like:
  • It looks as though she isn't coming. или It looks like she isn't coming.
  • Можно использовать as if или as though с другими глаголами чтобы сказать, как кто-то что-то делает:
  • He ran as if he was running for his life.
  • When the silence came, the speaker went on talking as if nothing had happened.
  • When I told them my plan, they looked at me as though I was mad.
  • В разговорном английском, можно употреблять like:
  • When I told them my plan, they looked at me like I was mad.

  • После as if или as though, мы используем прошедшее время когда говорим о настоящем. Например:
  • I don't like Tim. He talks as if he knew everything.
  • В этом предложении подразумевается настоящее время. Однако, мы используем Past Simple из-за нереалистичности фразы: Аналогично, мы используем прошедшее время в условных предложениях и после wish:
  • Примеры:
  • She's asking me to do things for her with the ambition, as if I didn't do enough for her.
  • Gary's only 40. Why do you talk about him as if he was an old man?
  • В этом случае, когда вы используете прошедшее время, можно употребить were вместо was:
  • Why do you talk about him as if he were an old man?
  • They treat me as if I were their own son.