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It и There

В английском предложении необходимо подлежащее. Иногда мы используем It или There как фиктиивное подлежащее.

Мы употребляем структуру there + be + именная конструкция:
чтобы ознакомить с чем-то новым:
There is a meeting this evening. It will start at seven.
I'm sorry I'm late. There was a lot of traffic.
Things are more expensive now. There has been a big rise in the cost of living.
чтобы сказать, где что-то находится:
There used to be a playground at the end of the street.
I wonder if there will be anyone at home.
There are flowers in the center of the table.
чтобы определить количество:
There was a lot of rain last night.
There is plenty of sex in that movie.
There must have been more than five hundred in the audience.
после местоимения, определяющего количество может идти инфинитив с частицей to:
There was nothing to watch on television.
There is plenty to do in the village.
или оборот с герундием:
There were a lot of people shouting and waving.
There is someone waiting to see you.

Мы говорим there will be, there must be, there might be, there used to be, there must have been, there should have been и т.д.:
Will there be many people at the party?
"Is there a flight to Paris this evening?" "There might be. I'll phone the airport."
If people were more tolerant, there would not be so much violence.
There was a light on. There must have been somebody at home.
Также можно сказать: there is + sure, certain, likely, bound + to be :
There is sure to be a flight to Paris this evening.

Мы используем структуру it + be + именная конструкция:
когда говорим о времени, датах и расстояниях:
It's nearly one o'clock.
How far is it from here to the airport.
It's a long time since we saw you last.
It's the first day of summer.
What day is it today?
когда говорим о погоде:
It was getting cold.
It's a lovely day.
It was windy yesterday.
когда говорим о себе:
(по телефону) Hello. It's George.
(стуча в дверь) It's me. It's Mary.
когда говорим о других людях:
Who's that? I think it's our schoolmaster.
(по телефону) Hello. Who is it?
когда делимся своиим мнением:
It's very cold in here.
It's very comfortable in my new apartment.
в конце может идти инфинитив с частицей to:
It was interesting to meet your wife.
It will be great to go to this club.
или герундий:
It's great living in Tenerife.
It's a very hard work looking after small children.

Мы употребляем it в предложениях, наподобие этим:
It's dangerous to ride bike on a highway.
It didn't take us long to get here.
Let's go. It's not worth waiting any longer.
It's a pity Mary can't come with us.