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Определенный артикль



Мы употребляем определенный артикль the перед существительными в единственном или во множественном числе. Мы используем the чтобы показать, что речь идет о вещах, известных собеседнику.

Посмотрите на эти примеры и сравните использование a и the:
A man and a woman were sitting opposite me. The man was old, but the woman looks like a girl.
Did Paula get the job she applied for?
When we were on holiday, we stayed at a hotel. The hotel didn't have a restaurant, so we went to the restaurant next to the hotel.

Мы используем the когда по ситуации понятно, о чем или о ком идет речь. Например, если мы находимся в комнате, то мы говорим о the floor, the ceiling, the window, the light и т.д.:
Can you turn off the light, please?
I took a taxi to the station.
Таким же образом, мы говорим the bank, the post office:
I have to go to the bank while it's not closed.
Но, если вы не имеете в виду определенный банк, вы можете спросить:
Is there a bank near here?
Мы также используем неопределенный артикль в выражениях once a week, three times a day, 1.50 a kilo и т.д.:
I work eight hours a day, five days a week.

Мы употребляем определенный артикль когда говорим об уникальной сущности:
What is the longest river in the world?
The earth goes round the sun and the moon goes round the earth.
Have you ever crossed the equator?
Paris is the capital of France.
Но мы употребляем неопределенный артикль чтобы сказать, к какому типу относится объект разговора.
The sun is a star.
The hotel we stayed at was a very luxury hotel.

Мы говорим: the ground, the sky, the sea, the country, the environment.
There were plenty of bright stars in the sky.
Would you like to live in the country?
We must do more to protect the environment.
Но мы говорим space без артикля когда имеем в виду пространство во вселенной.
There are millions of stars in space.
I tried to get into the bus, but the space was too small.
Мы говорим the same:
Your pullover is the same colour as mine.
"Are these keys the same?" "No, they're different."
Мы говорим: (go to) the cinema, the theatre:
People are less likely to go to the theater and the cinema, as well.
Мы обычно говорим the radio, но television (без the).
I listen to the radio and watch news via internet, but I don't watch television at all.
We watched the news on television.
The television = the television set:
Can you turn off the television, please?

Мы не используем определенный артикль с названиями процедур приема пищи (breakfast, dinner, lunch и т.д.):
What did you have for breakfast?
We had lunch in a very nice restaurant.
What time is dinner?
Но мы употребляем неопределенный артикль если перед названием стоит прилагательное:
We had a very nice lunch.

Мы не используем определенный артикль перед существительным с номером. Например, мы говорим:
Our train leaves from Platform 5.
There is a mistake in question 4.

Для некоторых мест, таких как school, prison, hospital, university, college, church мы не используем артикль если думаем об этих местах как об общей сущности. Однако, мы используем the когда имеем в виду определенное место. Сравните:
Ben is nine years old, he goes to school.
Ken's brother is in prison for robbery.
Joe had an accident last week. He was taken to hospital. He's still in hospital now.
After leaving school, I'm going to university.
Sally's father goes to church every Sunday.
I have to go to the school to visit my son's teacher.
She lives near the prison where her brother was.
Jane has gone to the hospital to visit Joe. She's at the hospital now.
Excuse me, where is the university, please?
There must be a lot of people in the church tomorrow morning.

Таким же образом мы не используем the с bed, work, home:
It's time to go to bed now.
Do you ever have breakfast in bed?
но I sat down on the bed.
Chris didn't go to work yesterday.
What time do you usually finish work?
It's late. Let's go home.
Will you be at home tomorrow afternoon?

Мы говорим go to sea, be at sea без артикля когда имеется в виду путешествие:
Keith works on ships. He is at sea most of the time.
but I'd like to live near the sea.

Когда мы говориим о людях или вещах вообще, то не используем определенный артикль. Но мы его используем когда говорим об определенных людях или вещах. Сравните:
В общем
I'm afraid of dogs.
Children learn from playing.
I couldn't live without music. I need it for my mood.
All cars have engine, doors, wheels and brakes.
Sugar isn't very good for you.
English people drink a lot of different kinds of tea.
My favourite subject at school was physics.
I like working with people.
Do you like strong black coffee without sugar?
Определенные люди или вещи
We took the children to the zoo.
The film was awful, but the music was good.
All the cars in this parking must have a car number.
Can you pass the sugar, please?
The English people I know drink plenty of beer.
The mechanics of rock cutting is quite complex.
I like the people I work with.
Did you like the coffee in that cafe?

Мы употребляем определенный артикль когда говорим об определенном типе какой-то сущности:
The bicycle is an excellent means of transport.
The Philippine peso is the currency of the Philippines.
Can you play the guitar?
Когда мы говорим man в смысле человеческой расы, мы не употребляем артикль:
Scientists are still arguing about the origins of man.

Мы используем the с прилагательными без существительного для обозначения групп людей, в частности:
  • the young      the poor      the elderly      the sick      the disabled      the dead
    the blind     the homeless     the old     the employed    the deaf     the injured
Эти выражения по смыслу всегда во множественном числе. Например, вы не можете сказать a homeless или the rich про одного человека. Вы должны сказать a young man или the injured woman.
I am sure the rich should pay higher taxes.
The government promises to help the homeless every year, but do nothing.

Вы можете использовать the + прилагательное национальности, оканчивающееся на -ch или -sh (the French / the English / the Spanish и т.д.). Это означает "люди из той страны" и всегда во множественном числе:
The French are famous for their food.
Также можно употребить the + прилагательное национальности, оканчивающееся на -ese: the Sudanese, the Chinese, the Japanese:
The Chinese invented gunpowder.
Однако, эти слова могут быть и в единственном числе: a Japanese, a Chinese и т.д.).
Мы также говорим a Swiss - единственное число и the Swiss - люди из Швейцарии.
С другими национальностями, множественное число оканчивается на -s. Например: an Korean -> Koreans, a Mexican -> Mexicans, a Turk -> Turks. Когда мы говорим о людях вообще, мы обычно не используем определенный артикль с этими словами:
The most spoken language by Mexicans is Spanish.



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